The PEN/Toni and James C. Goodale Freedom of Expression Courage Award was established in 2015 to honor exceptional acts of courage in the exercise of freedom of expression. The award is granted after consultations among PEN America staff and Trustees with specific relevant expertise on matters of freedom of expression. In some cases, outside expertise from PEN America’s Membership, partner organizations, and network of contacts is enlisted to inform internal analysis and deliberations. All final decisions regarding award determination and recipients are made by the Executive Committee of the PEN America Board of Trustees.