“PEN is the voice of cultures truthfully addressing one another rather than governments or armies in confrontation. The object is not to win something, but to illuminate something.” —Arthur Miller PEN American Center is the U.S. branch of the world’s oldest international literary and human rights organization. International PEN was founded in 1921 in direct response to the ethnic and national divisions that contributed to the First World War. PEN American Center was founded in 1922 and is the largest of the 144 PEN centers in 101 countries that together compose International PEN. Throughout its 90-year history, PEN American Center has remained a writer-centered organization in which members play a leading role. PEN presidents, such as Arthur Miller, Norman Mailer, Susan Sontag, and Salman Rushdie have, and continue to place themselves at the forefront of the struggle to oppose censorship and defend writers. Today, PEN American Center is comprised of 3,400 Professional Members who represent the most distinguished writers, translators, and editors in the United States. PEN also welcomes Associate Members who come from all parts of the literary community—booksellers, librarians, students, passionate readers—and who share PEN’s ideals. The direct involvement of this broad base of committed individuals forms the cornerstone of PEN’s ability to advocate for the rights of writers and readers at home and abroad. Additionally, Member Committees and groups such as the Translation Committee, the Children’s/Young Adult Book Authors Committee, the Writers’ Roundtable Committee, and the Women’s Literary Workshop are formed by Members for Members as a means to discuss and act on issues challenging their constituents.