An annotated list by PEN member Sandra Smith, translator of Irène Némirovsky and Albert Camus.

Edith Grossman, Why Translation Matters (Yale University Press, 2010) 
A defense of the cultural importance of the art of translation by one of its most respected proponents.

Umberto Eco, Mouse or Rat? Translation as Negotiation (Phoenix, 2003)
A clearly written analysis of challenges facing the translator—and why we can never be replaced by machines!

David Bellos, Is That a Fish in Your Ear? Translation and the Meaning of Everything (Faber & Faber, 2011)
Each chapter tackles a different aspect of the art of translation using straightforward language.

Gill Paul, ed., Translation in Practice: A Symposium by the British Centre for Literary Translation (Dalkey Archive Scholarly Series, 2008) 
In February 2008, editors and translators from the United States and the United Kingdom met in London to discuss “best practices” for translating literary works into English. This book is a collection of summaries, suggestions and instructions from leading translators and publishers. Download here

Lawrence Venuti, ed., The Translation Studies Reader, 2nd edition (Routledge, 2004)
Clearly written essays on various topics by a host of well-known writers, translators, and philosophers.