PEN is deeply worried about the writer and human rights defender Anouar Rahmani (أنور رحماني), who is currently the subject of a criminal investigation for allegedly insulting Islam following the publication of his latest novel, Jibril’s Hallucination (هلوسة جبريل). While he waits to hear whether the public prosecutor will indict him, Anouar Rahmani is a free man; however, he may face up to five years in prison if prosecuted.

Algerian blasphemy laws violate rights to freedom of expression, conscience, and religion. PEN calls for the criminal investigation into Anouar Rahmani to be abandoned.


Urge the Algerian authorities to:

  • Abandon the criminal investigation into Anouar Rahmani;
  • Ensure that he is protected from any harassment or threats for exercising his right to freedom of expression;
  • Amend all provisions of the Penal Code which criminalize the rights to freedom of expression and religion, including article 144 (bis 2). 

Please write to:

Tayeb Louh
Justice Minister
Ministry of Justice
8 Place Bir Hakem
16030 El Biar, Algiers
Fax: +213 21 9217 01

National Consultative Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Algeria
Palais du Peuple, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt,
Alger, Algeria
Fax: +213 21 2399 58

Please copy appeals to the diplomatic representative for Algeria in your country if possible. A list of embassies can be found here.


Anouar Rahmani, 25 years old, is a law student and author of two novels, Jibril’s Hallucination (هلوسة جبريل),which deals with religion, and White Shadows (الظلال البيضاء), which notably depicts a gay relationship during the Algerian war of independence. Through his writings, Rahmani explores human rights issues in Algeria, including those of Lesbian, Gay, Bi- and Transexual, and Intersex (LGBTI) people and those of religious minorities. He regularly defends the rights of marginalized and minorities on his blog, ‘Diary of an unusual Algerian’ (يوميات جزائري فوق العادة). Rahmani has indicated to PEN that he often receives threats and insults for his writings.

On February 27, 2017, Rahmani reported that he received a summons and the next day he attended a police station in the province of Tipaza. Police officers interrogated him about his writings for hours, focusing particularly on certain chapters of his novel Jibril’s Hallucination, his religious views, his political opinions, and those regarding Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

After six hours of continuous interrogation, the officer in charge informed Rahmani that he was the subject of an investigation under article 144 (bis 2) of the Penal Code, which stipulates a three to five year prison sentence and a fine of between 50,000 and 100,000 Algerian Dinar (roughly 900USD) for anyone that “offends the prophet” or “denigrates the dogma and precepts of Islam.” Police officers also told him that his case had been sent to the public prosecutor. At present, Rahmani has not yet heard from the authorities, who could decide to indict him at any given moment.

On March 14, 2017, Rahmani had to wait for more than six hours at Algiers’ Houari Boumediene airport before being allowed to travel to a conference in Lebanon. The delay came under the pretext that he had not carried out his military service, despite the fact that he is exempt as he is still a student.

According to article 42 of the Algerian Constitution, “freedom of conscience and opinion are guaranteed” while article 44 protects the freedom “of artistic creation.”

For any further information, please contact Nael Georges, PEN International, Koops Mill, 162-164 Abbey Street, London SE1 2AN | Tel: +44 (0) 207 405 0338 | Fax: +44 (0) 207 405 0339 | Email: